History of Matches and Lighters
Fire was a basis of modern humankind and a catalyst for the expansion of our ancestors beyond the borders of Africa. It gave us the power to survive in
harsh environments, process food, an change the shape of the environment we live in. As millennia’s went on, and human race started developing advanced
tools and form first Neolithic civilizations, ability to create fare became commonplace all around the world. However, that process was still slow,
unreliable and dependent upon many conditions (rain, wind, low portability). Because of those problems, many scientist, chemist and engineers of the early
human civilizations (Mesopotamia, Egypt, India, China, Greece and Rome) tried to find some way to make fire easy to create, portable and reliable. Because
they lacked the knowledge of the chemistry and physics, their early efforts were unsuccessful. The only relatively successful example of the early control
over fire came from 5th century AD China, where sulfur coated wooden sticks was used as a catalyst of creating fire. By 10th century manufacture of these
"light-bringing slaves" or “fire inch-sticks” could be found in all parts of china, but the self-igniting match stuck was not found.
1000 years passed, and scientists still did not come close to the finding the way how to create self-igniting source of fire that could be used reliably by
general population (few impractical and very dangerous chemical reactions were present). The basis of the modern match and lighter technology was founded
by none other than an alchemist Hennig Brandt in the second half of 17th century, who his entire life dreamed of creating gold from other metals. During
his career he managed to extract pure phosphorus and test his interesting flammable properties. Even though he discarded Phosphor in his alchemic
experiments, his notes proved to be an important stepping stone for future generations of inventors.
First match was created in 1805 by Jean Chancel in Paris. This crude match looked nothing like the modern “striking” matches we use today. Instead of using
phosphorus, Chancel elected to coat wooden stick with potassium chlorate, sulfur, sugar, rubber, and then dip that stick into the small asbestos bottle
filled with sulfuric acid. Connection between acid and the mixture on the stick would start the fire and release very nasty fumes into the face of the
Over the last 200 years, scientists and engineers from all over the world managed to create matchsticks that we all love and use today. Here you can find out more about those inventors, their life and work stories, and the way their exploits changed the way we live today.(more)
During the history of the fire, several inventors managed to create devices and procedures that had profound impact on the development of our culture and the way of life. They were John Walker, Charles Sauria and Gustaf Erik Pasch.(more)
Initial period of match history was filled with various designs and ways matchstick can create fire. Now that “safety match” has managed to conquer worldwide market with its safe and reliable design, you can find out how it is made right here. (more)
Lighter history started during 1920s with the exploits of the chemists and inventor Johann Wolfgang Döbereiner. His device called “Döbereiner's lamp” served as an excellent stepping stone for creation of modern lighter industry and the technologies that are today used in every lighter around the world.(more)
With the rise of the modern chemistry, it was not strange to see that first lighter was created before the first friction match. Famous German chemist
Johann Wolfgang Dobereiner created his “Döbereiner's lamp” in 1823, which used chemical reaction between zinc and sulfuric acid to create very flammable
hydrogen gas. Even though this invention was truly remarkable and has fueled many other inventors to start developing new lighter designs, it was 1826
introduction of first friction match by English chemist and druggist John Walker that truly managed to change the way we create fire. After him, many other
inventors added their contributions and advancements, eventually leading to the worldwide phenomenon of white phosphorus matches created by Frenchman
Charles Sauria. Even though this type of matches was very popular, white phosphorus was eventually banned from public usage because of its toxic
The definitive modern match was born in mid-19th century by Swedish chemist Gustaf Erik Pasch. His “safety match” design moved the phosphorus away from the
match itself and onto safe striking surface, enabling creation of much safer, easier to use, and cheaper matches. His invention was greatly popularized by
Swedish industrialist and inventor John Edvard Lundström who started first mass production of this type of matches.
- Döbereiner's Lamp - History of the First Lighter
German scientists Johann Wolfgang Döbereiner will remain remembered in our history not only for his work on developing modern periodic table of elements, but also as an inventor of the first commercial lighter. Here you can learn more about his life and how “Döbereiner's lamp” enabled future generations of inventors to create lighter that we know and love today.
- History of Lighters
Lighters are portable devices that can reliably and safely produce flames. Their history started in early 19th century, and after many changes in their designs and power sources, engineers and chemist managed to create lighters that are today used all around the world. Find out their history here.
- How Matches are Made?
Modern “safety match” was introduced to the public in 19th century by Swedish scientists Gustaf Erik Pasch, but his initial discovery went through several important advancements that enabled matches to become as successful as they are today. Here you can learn how modern matches are made.
- John Walker - Inventor of the Friction Matches
John Walker was English chemist and druggist that managed to revolutionize modern history of matches by introducing friction-based chemical reaction to the match. Here you can learn all about his life and work, and how his friction matches paved the way for the creation of the modern “safety match” that we all use today.
- Charles Sauria - Inventor of Phosphorus-based Matches
Friction matches received a large surge in popularity when French chemist Charles Sauria managed to fully extract potential of white phosphorus. His design soon became very popular across the world, but after decades of use it was banned because of health and very easy self-inflammation risks. Here you can learn more about the life and work of Charles Sauria.
- Gustaf Erik Pasch - Inventor of the Safety Matches
Gustaf Erik Pasch was a Swedish chemist who managed to completely change the modern match industry. By moving phosphorus from the top of the match to the special striking surface, he enabled creation of cheap, safe and easy to use matches that were far superior to the models that was in use before.